SRI LANKA – THE CHINESE CONNECTION – By Bernard VanCuylenburg
From its inception by King Yashovarman in 889 AD, to its decline in the 14th century, Angkor in Cambodia was the capital of the powerful Khmer empire. The world famous temple complex of Angkor Wat built and extended by various Khmer kings between the 7th and eleventh centuries when this civilisation was at the height of its extraordinary creativity, is today a world heritage site. A few years ago during my travels in Cambodia I spent a few days at Angkor marvelling at these magnificient monuments of ancient glory in stone. Apart from wishing to drink deep of her archaeological splendour, my main reason for visiting Angkor was to travel about 900 years back in time and see this kingdom which had close cultural ties with ancient Sri Lanka specially during the Polonnaruwa period. When King Parakramabahu the 1st ascended the throne in 1153 AD he established close diplomatic links with the powerful Khmer kingdom, true to his foreign policy of expanding trade with countries in South East Asia. Relations between ancient Ceylon and Cambodia were so close that King Jayavarman who ruled Angkor from 1181 to 1218 AD sent one of his sons to spend some time at the royal court in Polonnaruwa. The young Khmer prince was thus a VIP guest at the court and some records indicate he stayed there for three years.
In her excellent book HISTORY OF ANGKOR Professor Madeleine Giteau of the Sorbonne University Paris, mentions this visit and also goes on to state that in the 13th century the Sinhalese kings were responsible for spreading Theravada Buddhism in Cambodia which until that time practiced Mahayana Buddhism. As a result of King Parakramabahu’s dynamic foreign policy, there were many foreign merchants residing in Ceylon at the time. Among these were the Cambodian bird catchers because an important item in international trade during this period were exotic bird feathers. Apart from diplomatic missions, there were probably Sinhala merchants residing in Cambodia, specifically in Angkor which facilitated two way trade. Cambodia also had some influence in the architecture during the Polonnaruwa period, albeit very limited. The “Sathmahal Prasadaya” in Polonnaruwa with its design of seven storeys is typically Cambodian. King Parakramabahu’s policy of fostering ties with the Khmer empire had one negative (though fortunately temporary) result for ancient Ceylon. Before he became king, Ceylon enjoyed very close ties with Burma. Burma also enjoyed close trade links with Cambodia.
When Ceylon established diplomatic ties with Cambodia the Burmese king Alaungsithu became very suspicious . He feared that Ceylon would deprive Burma of a major share of her trade with Cambodia. He then became openly hostile by obstructing Ceylon’s trade with South East Asian kingdoms – an act which strained relations between Burma and Ceylon. And unfortunately, this led to war. What the Burmese king failed to realise was that he picked on the wrong man ! King Parakramabahu was not know as “The Great” for nothing ! A man who did not believe in half measures, and being the great statesman he was, he explored all diplomatic avenues, playing the pacifist to dispel the crisis which had developed. When all failed he dispatched an army to lower Burma to teach the Burmese king a lesson. (This incidentally would give one an idea of the strength of Ceylon’s army and navy at the time). Fortunately, King Alaungsithu sued for peace and happily diplomatic relations were restored .
After King Parakramabahu’s death in 1186 AD his successors King Nissanka Malla and King Vijayabahu 2nd continued maintaining strong diplomatic links with Cambodia. In 1353 Angkor was abandoned when this once mighty empire was seized by the Siamese King, Ramadhipathi. However, in 1358 another Khmer prince Suryavamsa Rajadhiraja recaptured Angkor and ruled until 1370, when another massive attack from Siam (present day Thailand) signalled the fall of this once proud kingdom. Sadly, one hundred and fifty years before, a similar fate befell Ceylon when Polonnaruwa was captured in 1215 by an Indian prince, Magha. By 1235 the destruction of Polonnaruwa was complete . Perusing the pages of history, I formed the opinion that the fall of Polonnaruwa began with the death of King Nissanka Malla 1n 1196 AD. The four kings after him spent their time and energy squabbling and plotting . Corruption spread through the land resulting in neglect and weakening of the kingdom. Unity they say is strength. Conversely, disunity results in division and weakness. It was during this time that Prince Magha of the Kalinga dynasty invaded the island to deliver the coup de grace. The lessons of history it seems are never learned.
Today, two ancient kingdoms which had close links over 900 years ago merit the honour of being classified as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO, evoking the admiration of visitors from all over the world – Angkor, capital of ancient Cambodia, and Polonnaruwa capital of medieval Ceylon.
There is a treasure trove of archaeological wonders in the Eastern seaboard of Sri Lanka and one specific location is the Kuchchaveli, Pulmoddai and Tiriyaya district of Trincomalee. And that brief introductory line is the genesis of this article.
I walked through the desolate track through patches of thick shrub and dense forest, my curiosity aroused by some stone slabs and granite pillars which lay scattered in disarray on the forest floor. Ocassionally I came across ancient brickwork which I surmised may have once been part of a wall. The villagers in the area told me that further on, in deep jungle there were statues of the Buddha badly damaged. This did not surprise me because there is an inscription that this whole area was occupied by members of the Buddhist clergy since the 3rd century B.C. It was late in the evening and having been warned that leopard and bear were seen in the vicinity, I ventured no further. I was in Kuchchaveli about 14 miles from Trincomalee, on the Trincomalee – Pulmoddai road. On one side lay the ocean, and on the other the jungle, bisected by the road. The jungle track which I was on branched off the main road.
The year was 1974, and I was employed at Nilaveli Beach Hotels Limited. It was the year the hotel opened for business. Whenever I had time off I would visit this area and heal my soul in the silence and solitude of this place which must have once been a place of spiritual grandeur. To the best of my knowledge these ruins were never classified and no archaeological excavations were undertaken. The intervening ethnic conflict made this task impossible. My heartache then was that these ruins would surrender to the grip of the strangling jungle. Reclaiming them for posterity was a forlorn hope. My heartbreak today 44 years later from a different time and place, is that they may have disappeared from the pages of our history forever.
Fortunately, there is one special treasure which has been restored and will forever have a special place in my heart. This is the TIRIYAYA VATADAGE, a further twenty four miles from Nilaveli. Historically the Vatadage has been dated to the 7th century A.D. although there is a brahmin inscription which states that the Buddhist clergy occupied this site since the 3rd century B.C. What is most important is that there is a record of two merchants named Tapassu and Bhalluka who visited Tiriyaya during Lord Buddha’s lifetime and enshrined hair relics of the Buddha at this shrine. I visited Tiriyaya often. Surrounded by thick forest the Vatadage stood majestic in beautiful countryside. The total isolation and solitude of the place was interrupted by sweet birdsong and the sounds of the forest, which enriched its spiritual atmosphere. I would spend hours here listening to the music of the wind and the sounds of silence. Inspired by the fact that this shrine could be traced back to the lifetime of the Buddha, I left each time, enriched in spirit with a deeper level of consciousness which enabled me to see and understand life more clearly. My fervent hope is that this sacred shrine is well preserved as it was when I first visited it over thirty years ago and has not suffered any damage in the ethnic conflict. In the Kuchchaveli area there are caves along the seashore with Brahmin inscriptions dating from the 3rd century B.C. There had to be a centre of learning, perhaps even some monasteries in the vicinity. Given the vagaries of the weather, I fear these inscriptions will be lost forever.
About seven miles from Trincomalee, on the main Trincomalee – Anuradhapura road, there is a track which branches off into the forest (It was a track then. It is a road now). About three miles down this road is a jewel in the crown of Sri Lanka’s archaeological sites – the ancient temple complex of THE VELGAM VEHARA. When I first visited it I wondered why nothing had ever been written about it, and it did not even feature in any tourist brochure. Neither could I find reference to it in the Mahavamsa or the Culavamsa. It has to be in the Mahavamsa, or maybe I am missing something. Relatively unknown then, this beautiful complex is as magnificient as any in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa. There are ruins of many buildings near the Vehara, and elegant pillars cover a wide area in what once may have been lush gardens. It is a precious gem, and the venerable Chief Priest of the temple was my mentor each time I visited this site. He told me that the Velgam Vehara is over a thousand years old but could not provide me with any historical information. Perhaps in perusing the Mahavamsa, the information I seek stares at me from the hallowed pages of this ancient chronicle, and my spiritual thirst and enthusiasm blinds me. I can only hope that this site will be preserved for future generations. In her long and glorious history of over 2500 years, a once proud civilisation chose to build her spiritual heart here. The stillness of the woods and the mystery that surrounded the site intrigued me then, as it does now after all these years.
Sadly, the description of this site in the preceeding paragraph is confined to the past tense. When I visited this site in September 2014 I was shattered to find that many of the statues had been destroyed and vandalised. This once beautiful temple complex in lush gardens did not in any way reflect its past glory and is only a pale shadow compared to when I used to visit it in the mid seventies and early eighties. When I expressed my disappointment to the high priest, he told me that it is a miracle that he and his assistant priest escaped with their lives during the dark days of the ethnic conflict.
Fortunately the archaeological sites in Sri Lanka have not been attacked by the Thyo – Bacillicus which causes a disease of stone. This vicious bacillicus crumbles any stone surface thus erasing its beauty forever. It is the scourge of archaeologists, the world over and has been prevalent in Cambodia and other sites around the world. However, some consolation can be taken from the fact that advances in modern restoration techniques have proved a timely antidote. There are surely other ruins buried deep in the jungles of the eastern province which will never be retrieved. We owe a debt of gratitude to the people who gave us monuments like the Tiriyaya Vatadage and the Velgam Vehera. Since there is no record of their names, they remain among the many unsung heroes who took ancient Lanka to first world standards. But their monuments are a testimony to their skill, and will keep their legacy alive, while helping us to widen our window into the past.
According to the great chronicles of Sri Lanka’s glorious history the Mahavamsa and the Culavamsa, 184 kings and one queen ruled the island beginning with Prince Vijaya in 483 BC. and ending with the reign of King Sri Vickrama Rajasinghe in 1815 AD. which heralded the start of British colonial rule in the country. Within this time frame spanning a period over 2000 years, a few names stride history’s stage – rulers whose names are forever enshrined in letters of gold in the hearts minds and psyche of Sri Lanka……King Devanampiyatissa, King Pandhukabhaya, King Dutthagamini, the great tank builders King Dhatusena and King Mahasena, the genius who gave us Sigiriya King Kasyappa, and the great King Parakramabahu the first , to name just a few……..
In this article I wish to pay tribute to a man who was not only a great king and philanthropist, but also a famous surgeon who whilst attending to affairs of state, found time to travel the island healing the sick and giving those who needed healing, the benefit of his medical expertise. This man was KING BUDDHADASA who ascended the throne in 337 AD and ruled till 365 AD , a glorious reign of 28 years.
A generous human being and devout Buddhist, he merits the highest praise of the chronicler writing in the Culavamsa who states ” He had pity for all beings as a father has pity and love for his children….” I venture to state that King Buddhadasa was the ‘Mother Teresa’ of his day ! In the chapter dealing with his reign, the chronicler gives us numerous examples where he treated the sick . There is the classic instance of the young man treated by the king for a head ailment although we have no details regarding the precise nature of the injury. It is obvious that surgery was performed on the young man because the Culavamsa states “The king split the skull, performed the operation and put the parts of the skull together again…..” He also cured a Buddhist monk suffering from epilepsy and saved the life of a woman seven months pregnant whose foetus was in the wrong position. It should be noted that his kindness and medical skill was not limited to human beings, but also to animals. He appointed physicians to attend to elephants and horses all over the island. There is the interesting story of a snake (probably a cobra) suffering from a tumour in its belly that was healed by the king. Having cured the reptile, the people remarked “Even the reptiles benefit from the king’s medical expertise…….” The health of the people was his greatest concern and he initiated a medical scheme which would have been one of the best in the world at the time.
He built hospitals for the sick in every village and appointed a chief physician whose responsibility was to administer three hospitals in each district . He also set up hostels for the crippled and the blind with instructions that they be fed and their needs attended to. Whenever he could get away from matters of state, he travelled the land attending to the sick, performing surgery whenever necessary. According to the Culavamsa, he had a pocket made inside his mantle to carry his surgeons knife and the chronicler further adds “….whenever he met them he freed the afflicted from their pain…..” The actual word used in the Culavamsa is “Satthavatim Sattha”. (Surgical knife). In the limited space of this article it is not possible to detail the many cases where he healed the sick. I can only add that any reader interested in the life of this great king should peruse the Culavamsa in the chapter dealing with his reign.
This good and great king led the life of a Boddhisatva and the chronicler describes him as “….a mine of virtue….” When he died in 365 AD the island was plunged into grief. With his passing a golden era of twenty eight years ended, and the country lost a great king, a brilliant surgeon, a philosopher and philanthropist.
Over fifty years ago on an estate far away, a story of evil and revenge was played out to the horror of a young Assistant Superintendent who became the hapless victim of a God’s revenge from another dimension…….And with that introduction the curtain goes up in the following tale of a God’s wrath. The plantation where this drama unfolded was Hopton Group in the Uva district – an estate as remote as it gets, far away from anywhere. Hopton was one of the largest estates in Madulsima in the Uva district, 2600 acres in extent. The Manager at that time was a Scotsman, a veteran planter who had risen from the ranks and learned his craft the hard way. In a word, he was a pragmatic gentleman well versed in his trade, and more than being a Planter he also had a degree from a prestigious Scottish university. There were four Assistant Superintendents on Hopton, and the youngest and most recent of them was the chief protaganist in this story. The four divisions of Hopton were Swinton, Old Factory Division, Bulugolla, and Lower Division. “Sandy” the young Assistant was in charge of the latter two divisions. “Sandy” is the pseudonym I shall use, for that was not his real name. …
When I peruse the Mahavamsa and the Culavamsa priceless records that documents ancient Ceylon’s cultural heritage, it marinates my soul in the grandeur of the island’s rich civilization that is almost legendary. In art, architecture, hydraulic engineering, hydrology and irrigation/ water management, ancient Lanka is on par with the classic civilizations of imperial Greece and Rome, the great Aztec and Mayan civilizations of Central America, and that of the Incas in Peru. And, as in all great records of a country’s history, many questions remain unanswered which will to us forever remain tantalizing mysteries. In this article I will deal with two, one of which I experienced personally, over thirty five years ago.
THE MYSTERY OF THE MALIGAWILA BUDDHA.
A few miles from Monaragala lies the village of Maligawila. At least it was a village when I visited it many years ago. I have no idea what it looks like today with the pace of progress. In 1930 a sensational discovery of a colossal Buddha statue was made in thick elephant infested jungle. The statue was badly damaged and ancient records state that it was King Agaboddhi the first, who commissioned the carving of this statue around 600 AD. The discovery of this statue gave rise to a two fold mystery. The ancient stone masons first cut and extracted a massive chunk of rock in one whole block from a quarry located half a mile away. This alone was an effort requiring superhuman strength not to mention the fact that they had to haul this rock to Maligawila where they erected it in an upright position. It was after this was done that the sculptors got to work and produced this masterpiece. The department of archaeology began restoring this statue in 1965, and I visited the site a few years later. I recall an officer from the department telling me that they were at a loss to understand how this massive chunk of rock was transported through dense jungle. The slightest mishap would have resulted in the rock being cracked which would have rendered it worthless. What method of transport was used ? But those ancient workmen were more than equal to the task. Today fully restored, the Maligawila Buddha stands resplendent in majesty in lush countryside, forty five feet in height. I have seen ancient statues of the Buddha in Thailand, Cambodia, China and India. But the statues of ancient Lanka are some of the best in the world.
Not far from Wellawaya, there is a carving of three figures on a rock face in Buduruvagala. The eminent historian Professor K.M.De Silva, who was once the Vice president of the International Association of Historians of Asia, dated these statues to the 9th century AD. In this complex there is a statue of Lord Buddha in the centre flanked by a Bodhisattva on either side. Thirty two years ago I visited Buduruvagala and was privileged to “witness” and experience a phenomenon which some told me bordered on the supernatural, but which I prefer to think of as spiritual. Let me set the scene. To reach Buduruvagala, one has to branch off the Wellawaya – Ella road and journey along what was then a rough jungle track till suddenly, in a beautiful glade in the forest one comes across these giant statues standing majestically tall and imposing in a serene jungle setting in silent splendour as they have stood for over a thousand years. In the stillness of this site amidst the beauties of nature, there is an atmosphere which is mystical and defies explanation. As I came upon the site a cultivator from a nearby plot of land he was working on, noting my interest, came up and introduced himself to me. He said his name was Sirisena, and although his home town was Nuwaraeliya, he told me he often visited this area hoping to start cultivation. We spoke for a long while, and during our conversation Sirisena revealed an astounding fact to me. He told me that every Maha Poya day, the statue of the Bodhisattva on the left of the rock face emanated a sweet scented oil. I must have been blessed by the Gods because by some beautiful coincidence I happened to be there on Maha Poya day. Of course, I decided to test the veracity of Sirisena’s words. I went up to the statue and was surprised to see a liquid substance oozing from the head of the statue right down to its feet. I touched this liquid which resembled a light oil and then I smelt it. It had a fragrance which I had never experienced before. A pure beautiful scent which soothed the senses and seemed to heal. This deeply moved me and I stood for sometime in stunned silence gazing in awe and reverence at the face of these statues, spiritually fulfilled and enriched. I then applied the oil on my hands and forehead, and my driver Samarasinghe, and Sirisena did the same.
Sirisena told me that the oil ceases flowing when the Maha Poya day ends. But the mystery deepens. I was informed that every Maha Poya day towards nightfall , as Buduruvagala stands silent in its enchanted atmosphere, the sound of drums beating, conch shells blowing, and cries of “Sadhu…..Sadhu” can be heard in the immediate vicinity of these statues. The few villagers listen to these sounds in awe and wonder. There are greater things in life than we dream of in our philosophy, and I hold the belief that in this sacred and hallowed place, these are voices from the past. Parting the impenetrable veil of time, they reach out to us through the ages in some way strengthening the bonds between their lives and ours. I left Buduruvagala reluctantly, but spiritually uplifted. Just as these statues are carved out of living rock, their beautiful images remain engraved in my mind forever. I subsequently published an article in the “Ceylon Daily News” regarding my experience. Today, over thirty five years later, I wonder if this phenomenon still occurs, keeping the mystery alive. More archaeological treasures must lie buried in the ruins, and at the time of my visit the area was largely unexcavated. I hope one day archaeologists will breathe life into the past of this magnificient complex so that Buduruvagala will come into focus not only for its sculpture, but in the full scope of its history.
At the end of a road less travelled, a new journey begins………
To set the scene for this article I have to commence with a reference to Hypnos, who in Greek and Roman mythology is the God of sleep. His son Morpheus is the God of dreams, but Hypnos and I have never been on amicable terms. For years my patterns of sleep have been fragmented, and many are the nights I have laid awake when sleep evaded me, waiting for dawn’s golden light. I have often wondered if, as boarders at St. Anthony’s College Kandy, the infernal tolling of the bell at the ungodly hour of 5.30 am. to wake us boarders, is in some way to blame for this condition !! A “Sleep in” beyond the sound of the bell was an impossibility !! …
After firstly, viewing the magnificent “flowing-flag” of “My Lovely Island Home”, as I call her, then reading through the most magnificent story of the “Mother Of Marvels”, as I would prefer it to be known as, written by, who I would simply describe as one of the very best “writers” to put pen to paper, Bernard VanCuylenberg, proudly, stolidly, soundly, a Sri Lankan Burgher with an unconditional love for the little “Pearl Of The Indian Ocean”, just as Neil Jayasekera (the flag-waver) & “your’s truly” are, as well.
We are all a part of “history”, folks. Like it, or not, the history of our entire world will someday fade into nothingness, but, until then, it is the solemn duty of every-one of us, to respect the “time” the Almighty has given us, and not forget to remember everything that has made little old Mother Earth “great”.
Bernard “goes into history” here, from various angles of the globe. All the facts & figures are there. Putting it mildly, this guy would have to be one of the most ardent Archaeologists who, is not one, by trade. He is simply a “teacher” wishing to impart his wide knowledge of Archaeology (and English)to pupils who are, in my opinion, the luckiest in the World, to be taught by an absolute guru.
And so, without impinging into an excellent series of articles, suffice to say that here, we come into a “common-sense”, down-to-earth, lesson from an “Arch-aeologist” at heart, as to WHY Sri Lanka stands to lose it’s status as one of the most important Archaeological Phenomenons of the Ancient World. A tiny bit of God’s Earth that has achieved SO MANY GREAT THINGS, is now losing it’s grip on the essential events of a bygone era. The beautiful Land, the fabulous architectural achievements, structures dedicated to the Lord Buddha, statues, even, not properly taken care of, and now showing signs of deterioration, achievements, proudly, the pride of this Planet, already losing due recognition through sheer ignorence (the don’t care, attitude, I call it). Wake up, Sri Lanka, wake up, my lovely Island home. If you do not, the “Goodnight Waltz” will probably the last beautiful song you will hear.
Desmond Kelly (Lankan Aussie & proud eLanka supporter)
Peeling back the layers of history, archaeologists spanning the years, have made sensational discoveries which have been immortalised in the collective human conscience. To set the scene for this article, I am compelled to venture to lands further afield – far away from resplendent Lanka – and cite a few examples where archaeological discoveries have set the human spirit aflame and caused a sensation around the world. The stunning discoveries made by the engineers and surveyors when the Maduru Oya scheme was first undertaken in Sri Lanka will resonate with some discoveries made in other lands. One of the most famous was the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamen who ruled Egypt from 1360 – 1350 BC. in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. On the point of giving up after a fruitless search and colossal expense, the persistence of two archaeologists, Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon finally paid off when in 1922 the tomb was discovered with Carter uttering the words which expressed his sentiments at that moment …..”My eyes have seen marvellous things…..” So great was this discovery that they spent a decade emptying the tomb of more than 3000 objects many of which needed on-the-spot conservation. But there have been other discoveries lesser known but equally important. I spent a whole day exploring the Valley of the Kings and later visited the exhibits from the tomb of King Tutankhamen which covers practically the entire third floor of the Cairo museum. It is a visit I highly recommend to anyone travelling to that part of the world.
When the Egyptian civilisation had already declined, and when the Roman empire was lapsing into its long dark night, a civilization unknown to the west 6000 miles away from the heart of Rome was approaching its peak. By the fourth century AD the Maya had begun to build a chain of magnificient cities and temples throughout the rain forests of Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico connected by paved roads constructed by Mayan engineers. The decline of the Maya commenced in 925 AD after which these cities were lost and forgotten, wrapped in greenery, smothered by the rain forests. Then in the year 1839 an American lawyer and diplomat John Stephens, and an English artist Frederick Catherwood breached the jungle fastness and rediscovered the miracle of Maya civilization. On penetrating the jungle’s thickness and discovering these cities Stephens said “I thought I was looking at a scene from another world….” I followed the trail of Stephens and Catherwood during two visits to these countries and have stood open-mouthed, gazing in awe at these colossal temples and buildings, noting all the while that the engineers of ancient Lanka were as competent and in some respects superior to their Mayan counterparts. The discoveries of Stephens and Catherwood sent ripples of excitement throughout the West.
The subject of this article are two ghost stories which deal with the question of life after death. Often ghost stories are hard to believe even if one has an inclination to believe in ghosts. There are two opposing forces which confront ghost stories. One is an attitude of total scepticism and the other, one of total acceptance. Whether one disbelieves or believes, there are certain concepts that both schools of thought can accept. We are born and we die. During that space of time we observe, we communicate, we feel and we think. It is almost axiomatic that there is knowledge beyond our own perception, which has been proved by history. Our knowledge has grown over the years . The poet Carl Sandburg once wrote that death is a part of life, and thus a legitimate area to explore, even though a difficult one. Today the means of exploring it are in the hands of philosophers, theologists and parapsychologists. And it is only the parapsychologists who have endeavoured for years to find hard rational evidence which proves there is life beyond the grave. As a matter of interest a few years ago, the American Association for the Advancement of Science admitted parapsychology as a subject of science and thus a discipline of science.
To the point, beautifully written, Bernard brings to us all the poignant story of these very people, “The Unsung Heroes”, part one & two, and Bernard, I have recorded these two songs myself, BUT, nothing but the BEST, to provide the musical background for your BEST, regarding the BEST of the “Unsung Heroes” of ancient Sri Lanka. Here he is, Ladies & Gentlemen, the BEST “Country” Singers, singing two beautiful songs, relevant to the superb article by Bernard VanCuylenberg. Please listen to the lyrics & the way he sings every song he has ever recorded. They might be love-songs, but, to me, he is singing of everyone we have chosen to forget. Pardon me, but this is for all our “Unsung Heroes”
Star of eLanka.
When Wilhem Geiger translated The Mahavamsa and The Culavamsa , he made a statement which adequately expresses my personal sentiments regarding the complexities of the ancient recorded history of Sri Lanka. Geiger remarked “Not what is said, but what is left unsaid is the besetting difficulty of Sinhalese history….” I can well understand his frustration, and within the limited space of this article will try to deal with many unanswered questions in Sri Lanka’s long and glorious civilisation. Sadly, these questions will forever remain answered. The ‘Unsung Heroes’ I refer to are not the great kings which ruled ancient Ceylon the resplendent island, but the engineers, architects, master craftsmen, artists, builders, and the rest of the intelligentsia, whose masterpieces evoke the worlds admiration today. It was they who gave ancient Ceylon – or Taprobane – first world status.