Over fifty years ago on an estate far away, a story of evil and revenge was played out to the horror of a young Assistant Superintendent who became the hapless victim of a God’s revenge from another dimension…….And with that introduction the curtain goes up in the following tale of a God’s wrath. The plantation where this drama unfolded was Hopton Group in the Uva district – an estate as remote as it gets, far away from anywhere. Hopton was one of the largest estates in Madulsima in the Uva district, 2600 acres in extent. The Manager at that time was a Scotsman, a veteran planter who had risen from the ranks and learned his craft the hard way. In a word, he was a pragmatic gentleman well versed in his trade, and more than being a Planter he also had a degree from a prestigious Scottish university. There were four Assistant Superintendents on Hopton, and the youngest and most recent of them was the chief protaganist in this story. The four divisions of Hopton were Swinton, Old Factory Division, Bulugolla, and Lower Division. “Sandy” the young Assistant was in charge of the latter two divisions. “Sandy” is the pseudonym I shall use, for that was not his real name.…
When I peruse the Mahavamsa and the Culavamsa priceless records that documents ancient Ceylon’s cultural heritage, it marinates my soul in the grandeur of the island’s rich civilization that is almost legendary. In art, architecture, hydraulic engineering, hydrology and irrigation/ water management, ancient Lanka is on par with the classic civilizations of imperial Greece and Rome, the great Aztec and Mayan civilizations of Central America, and that of the Incas in Peru. And, as in all great records of a country’s history, many questions remain unanswered which will to us forever remain tantalizing mysteries. In this article I will deal with two, one of which I experienced personally, over thirty five years ago.
THE MYSTERY OF THE MALIGAWILA BUDDHA.
A few miles from Monaragala lies the village of Maligawila. At least it was a village when I visited it many years ago. I have no idea what it looks like today with the pace of progress. In 1930 a sensational discovery of a colossal Buddha statue was made in thick elephant infested jungle. The statue was badly damaged and ancient records state that it was King Agaboddhi the first, who commissioned the carving of this statue around 600 AD. The discovery of this statue gave rise to a two fold mystery. The ancient stone masons first cut and extracted a massive chunk of rock in one whole block from a quarry located half a mile away. This alone was an effort requiring superhuman strength not to mention the fact that they had to haul this rock to Maligawila where they erected it in an upright position. It was after this was done that the sculptors got to work and produced this masterpiece. The department of archaeology began restoring this statue in 1965, and I visited the site a few years later. I recall an officer from the department telling me that they were at a loss to understand how this massive chunk of rock was transported through dense jungle. The slightest mishap would have resulted in the rock being cracked which would have rendered it worthless. What method of transport was used ? But those ancient workmen were more than equal to the task. Today fully restored, the Maligawila Buddha stands resplendent in majesty in lush countryside, forty five feet in height. I have seen ancient statues of the Buddha in Thailand, Cambodia, China and India. But the statues of ancient Lanka are some of the best in the world.
Not far from Wellawaya, there is a carving of three figures on a rock face in Buduruvagala. The eminent historian Professor K.M.De Silva, who was once the Vice president of the International Association of Historians of Asia, dated these statues to the 9th century AD. In this complex there is a statue of Lord Buddha in the centre flanked by a Bodhisattva on either side. Thirty two years ago I visited Buduruvagala and was privileged to “witness” and experience a phenomenon which some told me bordered on the supernatural, but which I prefer to think of as spiritual. Let me set the scene. To reach Buduruvagala, one has to branch off the Wellawaya – Ella road and journey along what was then a rough jungle track till suddenly, in a beautiful glade in the forest one comes across these giant statues standing majestically tall and imposing in a serene jungle setting in silent splendour as they have stood for over a thousand years. In the stillness of this site amidst the beauties of nature, there is an atmosphere which is mystical and defies explanation. As I came upon the site a cultivator from a nearby plot of land he was working on, noting my interest, came up and introduced himself to me. He said his name was Sirisena, and although his home town was Nuwaraeliya, he told me he often visited this area hoping to start cultivation. We spoke for a long while, and during our conversation Sirisena revealed an astounding fact to me. He told me that every Maha Poya day, the statue of the Bodhisattva on the left of the rock face emanated a sweet scented oil. I must have been blessed by the Gods because by some beautiful coincidence I happened to be there on Maha Poya day. Of course, I decided to test the veracity of Sirisena’s words. I went up to the statue and was surprised to see a liquid substance oozing from the head of the statue right down to its feet. I touched this liquid which resembled a light oil and then I smelt it. It had a fragrance which I had never experienced before. A pure beautiful scent which soothed the senses and seemed to heal. This deeply moved me and I stood for sometime in stunned silence gazing in awe and reverence at the face of these statues, spiritually fulfilled and enriched. I then applied the oil on my hands and forehead, and my driver Samarasinghe, and Sirisena did the same.
Sirisena told me that the oil ceases flowing when the Maha Poya day ends. But the mystery deepens. I was informed that every Maha Poya day towards nightfall , as Buduruvagala stands silent in its enchanted atmosphere, the sound of drums beating, conch shells blowing, and cries of “Sadhu…..Sadhu” can be heard in the immediate vicinity of these statues. The few villagers listen to these sounds in awe and wonder. There are greater things in life than we dream of in our philosophy, and I hold the belief that in this sacred and hallowed place, these are voices from the past. Parting the impenetrable veil of time, they reach out to us through the ages in some way strengthening the bonds between their lives and ours. I left Buduruvagala reluctantly, but spiritually uplifted. Just as these statues are carved out of living rock, their beautiful images remain engraved in my mind forever. I subsequently published an article in the “Ceylon Daily News” regarding my experience. Today, over thirty five years later, I wonder if this phenomenon still occurs, keeping the mystery alive. More archaeological treasures must lie buried in the ruins, and at the time of my visit the area was largely unexcavated. I hope one day archaeologists will breathe life into the past of this magnificient complex so that Buduruvagala will come into focus not only for its sculpture, but in the full scope of its history.
At the end of a road less travelled, a new journey begins………
The Saint of the world – AN ANTHONIAN IN PADUA – By Bernard VanCuylenburg
To set the scene for this article I have to commence with a reference to Hypnos, who in Greek and Roman mythology is the God of sleep. His son Morpheus is the God of dreams, but Hypnos and I have never been on amicable terms. For years my patterns of sleep have been fragmented, and many are the nights I have laid awake when sleep evaded me, waiting for dawn’s golden light. I have often wondered if, as boarders at St. Anthony’s College Kandy, the infernal tolling of the bell at the ungodly hour of 5.30 am. to wake us boarders, is in some way to blame for this condition !! A “Sleep in” beyond the sound of the bell was an impossibility !!…
THE MADURU OYA MARVEL – AND ROADS LESS TRAVELLED –
By Bernard VanCuylenburg
“Archaeological History”, The Maduru Oya Marvel.
After firstly, viewing the magnificent “flowing-flag” of “My Lovely Island Home”, as I call her, then reading through the most magnificent story of the “Mother Of Marvels”, as I would prefer it to be known as, written by, who I would simply describe as one of the very best “writers” to put pen to paper, Bernard VanCuylenberg, proudly, stolidly, soundly, a Sri Lankan Burgher with an unconditional love for the little “Pearl Of The Indian Ocean”, just as Neil Jayasekera (the flag-waver) & “your’s truly” are, as well.
We are all a part of “history”, folks. Like it, or not, the history of our entire world will someday fade into nothingness, but, until then, it is the solemn duty of every-one of us, to respect the “time” the Almighty has given us, and not forget to remember everything that has made little old Mother Earth “great”.
Bernard “goes into history” here, from various angles of the globe. All the facts & figures are there. Putting it mildly, this guy would have to be one of the most ardent Archaeologists who, is not one, by trade. He is simply a “teacher” wishing to impart his wide knowledge of Archaeology (and English)to pupils who are, in my opinion, the luckiest in the World, to be taught by an absolute guru.
And so, without impinging into an excellent series of articles, suffice to say that here, we come into a “common-sense”, down-to-earth, lesson from an “Arch-aeologist” at heart, as to WHY Sri Lanka stands to lose it’s status as one of the most important Archaeological Phenomenons of the Ancient World. A tiny bit of God’s Earth that has achieved SO MANY GREAT THINGS, is now losing it’s grip on the essential events of a bygone era. The beautiful Land, the fabulous architectural achievements, structures dedicated to the Lord Buddha, statues, even, not properly taken care of, and now showing signs of deterioration, achievements, proudly, the pride of this Planet, already losing due recognition through sheer ignorence (the don’t care, attitude, I call it). Wake up, Sri Lanka, wake up, my lovely Island home. If you do not, the “Goodnight Waltz” will probably the last beautiful song you will hear.
Desmond Kelly (Lankan Aussie & proud eLanka supporter)
THE MADURU OYA MARVEL – (Part 1)
Peeling back the layers of history, archaeologists spanning the years, have made sensational discoveries which have been immortalised in the collective human conscience. To set the scene for this article, I am compelled to venture to lands further afield – far away from resplendent Lanka – and cite a few examples where archaeological discoveries have set the human spirit aflame and caused a sensation around the world. The stunning discoveries made by the engineers and surveyors when the Maduru Oya scheme was first undertaken in Sri Lanka will resonate with some discoveries made in other lands. One of the most famous was the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamen who ruled Egypt from 1360 – 1350 BC. in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. On the point of giving up after a fruitless search and colossal expense, the persistence of two archaeologists, Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon finally paid off when in 1922 the tomb was discovered with Carter uttering the words which expressed his sentiments at that moment …..”My eyes have seen marvellous things…..” So great was this discovery that they spent a decade emptying the tomb of more than 3000 objects many of which needed on-the-spot conservation. But there have been other discoveries lesser known but equally important. I spent a whole day exploring the Valley of the Kings and later visited the exhibits from the tomb of King Tutankhamen which covers practically the entire third floor of the Cairo museum. It is a visit I highly recommend to anyone travelling to that part of the world.
When the Egyptian civilisation had already declined, and when the Roman empire was lapsing into its long dark night, a civilization unknown to the west 6000 miles away from the heart of Rome was approaching its peak. By the fourth century AD the Maya had begun to build a chain of magnificient cities and temples throughout the rain forests of Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico connected by paved roads constructed by Mayan engineers. The decline of the Maya commenced in 925 AD after which these cities were lost and forgotten, wrapped in greenery, smothered by the rain forests. Then in the year 1839 an American lawyer and diplomat John Stephens, and an English artist Frederick Catherwood breached the jungle fastness and rediscovered the miracle of Maya civilization. On penetrating the jungle’s thickness and discovering these cities Stephens said “I thought I was looking at a scene from another world….” I followed the trail of Stephens and Catherwood during two visits to these countries and have stood open-mouthed, gazing in awe at these colossal temples and buildings, noting all the while that the engineers of ancient Lanka were as competent and in some respects superior to their Mayan counterparts. The discoveries of Stephens and Catherwood sent ripples of excitement throughout the West.
The subject of this article are two ghost stories which deal with the question of life after death. Often ghost stories are hard to believe even if one has an inclination to believe in ghosts. There are two opposing forces which confront ghost stories. One is an attitude of total scepticism and the other, one of total acceptance. Whether one disbelieves or believes, there are certain concepts that both schools of thought can accept. We are born and we die. During that space of time we observe, we communicate, we feel and we think. It is almost axiomatic that there is knowledge beyond our own perception, which has been proved by history. Our knowledge has grown over the years . The poet Carl Sandburg once wrote that death is a part of life, and thus a legitimate area to explore, even though a difficult one. Today the means of exploring it are in the hands of philosophers, theologists and parapsychologists. And it is only the parapsychologists who have endeavoured for years to find hard rational evidence which proves there is life beyond the grave. As a matter of interest a few years ago, the American Association for the Advancement of Science admitted parapsychology as a subject of science and thus a discipline of science. …
To the point, beautifully written, Bernard brings to us all the poignant story of these very people, “The Unsung Heroes”, part one & two, and Bernard, I have recorded these two songs myself, BUT, nothing but the BEST, to provide the musical background for your BEST, regarding the BEST of the “Unsung Heroes” of ancient Sri Lanka. Here he is, Ladies & Gentlemen, the BEST “Country” Singers, singing two beautiful songs, relevant to the superb article by Bernard VanCuylenberg. Please listen to the lyrics & the way he sings every song he has ever recorded. They might be love-songs, but, to me, he is singing of everyone we have chosen to forget. Pardon me, but this is for all our “Unsung Heroes”
Star of eLanka.
When Wilhem Geiger translated The Mahavamsa and The Culavamsa , he made a statement which adequately expresses my personal sentiments regarding the complexities of the ancient recorded history of Sri Lanka. Geiger remarked “Not what is said, but what is left unsaid is the besetting difficulty of Sinhalese history….” I can well understand his frustration, and within the limited space of this article will try to deal with many unanswered questions in Sri Lanka’s long and glorious civilisation. Sadly, these questions will forever remain answered. The ‘Unsung Heroes’ I refer to are not the great kings which ruled ancient Ceylon the resplendent island, but the engineers, architects, master craftsmen, artists, builders, and the rest of the intelligentsia, whose masterpieces evoke the worlds admiration today. It was they who gave ancient Ceylon – or Taprobane – first world status.
Nuwaraeliya in the hill country is a masterpiece of mother nature, its geography offering extraordinary natural diversity – lush woods, winding mountain roads, carpets of green tea, and in the evenings the mists roll down to merge with the landscape in a fleecy embrace. It is one of the finest tea growing districts in the island. Some of the best tea estates are found in the area, one of which is Oliphant estate.
When I was twelve years old, my younger brother and I spent a holiday in the home of a cousin who was then the Assistant Superintendent on Oliphant. His bungalow nestled high in the hills. To get there one passed the factory, the Superintendent’s bungalow, and from there the road wound uphill all the way to his bungalow. The scenery was therapeutic with fresh mountain air, flowing mountain streams, and scores of flowering plants exploding in a riot of colour. And up from the valleys came the mist in thin strands to scamper up the slopes of the hills and disappear over their crests. It was during this holiday that I heard the following story which contrasted sharply with the beautiful scenic setting of Oliphant estate. It dwells in the realms of the supernatural…….terror in the deep dark night.
The Superintendent at the time was an Englishman, named Dennis Hodgson. A young creeper – I shall call him David – was appointed by the Company to learn work as a ‘creeper’ and then kick start his planting career. He stayed in the superintendent’s bungalow, and Mr.Hodgson had planned a rigid training programme and laid down all the ground rules for his young protégé. One evening he told David that he and Mrs.Hodgson were going to town to watch a movie after which they would go to the Hill Club for dinner. Consequently they would be returning late, so they asked David not to wait up for them, but to have an early dinner and retire for the night.
THE GALLOPING GHOST
Pardon the pun, but the nights on a lonely tea plantation are deathly quiet. The stygian darkness and the mist surrounding the area like a shroud resembles a scene from a Hammer Films horror movie. It was on such a night that David suddenly awoke from a deep sleep. He sat up in bed with a start, senses alert, his heart pounding as if to burst out of his rib cage, hardly believing what he had heard ! What he heard beyond a doubt was the sound of galloping hooves. Yes ! At this ungodly hour there was a horse galloping around the bungalow on the lawn outside ! He glanced at his watch It was twenty minutes past midnight…..the bewitching hour.
Convincing himself that all this could have been a bad dream, he dismissed the thought from his mind and settled in once more hoping for a long nights sleep. He had barely drifted off to slumber land, when the same sound awoke him again. This time, gripped in terror he listened to the galloping sound in the distance as the sound grew louder until finally it seemed to be outside his bedroom window. By now he was paralyzed with fear and frantically rang for the bungalow appu in panic until the latter appeared at his door. Mustering all the Tamil he knew he told the appu of what he had heard, glad that there was another human being in the room. The appu’s reaction left him aghast. He first made a pot of tea for the young “Dorai”, (Master) managed to calm him down, and then related this hair raising tale. Many years ago he said, there was a superintendent on Oliphant who owned a fine horse. This was long before the Morris Station Wagons were the mode of transport for the Superintendents on estates for their field rounds etc. (The Assistants had to walk !) This Superintendent who enjoyed horse riding sometimes rode his horse around the bungalow specially on Sundays. One fateful day the horse had reacted wildly during such a ride, and threw the SD off its back. The fall proved to be fatal due to a severe blow to his head and tragically, he died two days later.
It was a year later that his successor had a similar experience. And then the appu went on to explain to the petrified David, that on each death anniversary of the Superintendent who suffered the fall from his horse, the sound of galloping hooves would be heard just after midnight and over the years many Superintendents had heard it. In fact it became such a regular occurrence that they began to take it for granted. Please pardon the digression, but in similar vein I once asked a policewoman on guard duty at Hampton Court Palace in London, about the story of the ghost of Queen Catherine Howard who has been seen wandering the corridors of the palace at night. Her nonchalant answer surprised me. She replied that whenever she was rostered for guard duty at night with another police officer, they had seen this spectre so often that they did not take notice any more ! Queen Catherine Howard incidentally was the 5th wife of King Henry the 8th and following a charge of adultery, was beheaded in 1542.
Mr.& Mrs.Hodgson returned to the bungalow shortly after the excitement had abated, and were surprised to see most of the lights on at this ungodly hour. The appu explained what had happened, and they spent some time with David to lend him all the moral support and reassurance he needed. The next day after breakfast, Mr.Mills summoned David to the drawing room, sat him down and counselled him on the events of the previous night, gently advising him to focus on his goal in life – to succeed as a planter, and not to let an incident of this nature however harrowing it was, cloud his thinking. Sadly, his words had no effect.This ghostly ‘encounter’ had an adverse effect on the young ‘Creeper’ and three weeks later he submitted his resignation and left the estate.
Death as they say is a transition from this life to another. But some souls don’t rest and are trapped in a kind of ‘Twilight Zone’, wandering earthly dimensions for various reasons seeking to be released from the shackles that bind them. Incidents of supernatural manifestations in a way try to answer the big questions that loom in every heart. Why are we here ? What can we do?Where are we going ? If history tells us anything, it is that human culture and knowledge are evolving constantly. We are all in the process of awakening and opening up to who we really are – and what we came here to do. Opinions on the supernatural and psychic phenomena vary. There is some controversy if “ghosts” are in fact the souls of the departed.
There is a school of thought which suggests that traumatically or emotionally charged events may cause a burst of energy to be released and absorbed by inanimate objects in the immediate vicinity. It is called Psychometry. According to this line of belief, a sensitive person coming into contact with the charged objects would experience the emotions imprinted on them and may even “see” the events which took place years before. But one central fact remains. The supernatural will not go away even if one chooses to deny it. Psychic events have happened in the past, are still happening now and will continue to happen.
I am grateful to Des Kelly for suggesting the title for this article.
The author of “above” has given us a “new name”, one that I accept with pride. ” The A team” consists of, a) the writer of “Marked for murder”himself. The name Bernard VanCuylenberg, whose “Sigiriya-Sagas” have already been read, and thoroughly enjoyed by more than 20,000 members, plus many others, I suppose, of eLanka, the “Premier” Website for Lankan/Aussies, in particular, owned and “operated” in Sydney, Aust. by b) Neil Jayasekera, whose “Internet- expertise” is amply obvious, &, in addition, runs a “tight Ship” with c) “Yours truly”, taking on the role of 1st Lieutenant, 58 years after leaving the Royal Ceylon Navy, to come to Australia, just to join another “Force” The “A” Team.
From “reports” we have been getting, Bernard’s “Sigiriya Saga’s” have been read and thoroughly enjoyed by everyone who has taken the trouble to ingest what I would term “superb writing”. Hopefully, our readers out there, will not only read “our stuff”, they will then take the trouble to “comment”. We can NEVER get enough of “praise”, but if you are in a bad mood, and your comments are likely to be ” rotten”, take them with you & go “jump into the Yarra”.
It was rather difficult to find the relevant video for this particular “title” but, your 1st Lieutenant does not wish to be “keel-hauled” Sir, so I have come up with a favourite “Country-Star” of mine, Gene Watson to sing “Ceylon”?, couldn’t have picked a better place to die”! Please listen to Gene, folks, there is none better, and I would know thousands of girls who would “die” for him.
Desmond Kelly Star of eLanka (Editor-in-Chief).
MARKED FOR MURDER by Bernard VanCuylenburg
The sylvan surroundings, bracing climate and majestic mesmerizing landscapes of the tea estates in the plantation districts of Sri Lanka specially in the hill country, are an inspiration to the poet, artist, and philosopher. But beneath this facade of nature at her very best, lie tales of dark secrets and murder most foul, four of which I shall set down in this article. The four cases depicted are factual to the last detail. Perhaps one that became famous for all the wrong reasons was the ‘ The Whitehouse Murder ‘ which took place in 1949. It was the English Bishop Reginald Heber who once said that “Every prospect pleases and only man is vile…….” In the beautiful hill country with its desolate valleys, hills of carpeted green, and flora of every description, every prospect was pleasing to the point of spiritual intoxication, but only man proved to be vile as other human beings were marked for murder…………
THE KING THE CHARIOTEER AND THE GATEKEEPER (Part 1)
by Bernard VanCuylenburg
“Not to know what happened before we were born ” wrote the Roman poet Cicero, (106 – 43 BC.) “is to remain perpetually a child. For what is the worth of a human life unless it is woven into the life of our ancestors by the records of history ?” Thus in my writings I have endeavoured to peel back the layers of time to give an honoured place to ancient Lanka which emphasizes so greatly the importance of her history and traditions which have left a deep footprint on the worlds stage.
An alternate title I had in mind for this article was A DAY IN THE YEAR 478 AD. It was a day which saw tremendous political upheaval and instability in the land, and the end of a dynasty. Before I get into the detail of this article, a flashback to the year 478 AD in other parts of the world, may provide an interesting timeline to events of the period although they have no direct impact on the drama being enacted in ancient Lanka that year. In the far east, the year 478 AD signalled the end of the Song dynasty in China and heralded the ascendancy of the Qi dynasty. In neighbouring India just one year before, the Gupta Empire held sway and King Budhagupta ruled the land. Two years before, in 476 AD the mighty Roman empire collapsed , with the last Roman emperor Romulus Augustus suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Odovacar the Goth. Distant England was ruled by the Anglo-Saxons except for Cornwall and Cumberland. In the Vatican in Rome, Pope Simplicius sat on the throne of St.Peter. And in Lanka that year, one of the greatest kings that ever sat on a throne was usurped in a palace coup and was to endure a sudden fall from grace and suffer the most barbaric death ever conceived by the human mind. History is replete with numerous examples of kings and rulers being put to death by the most gruesome means even before Emperor Julius Caesar’s assassination, and right down the ages. In keeping with the subject of this story, I wish to cite three examples which come to mind.…
For any Lankan/Australian, in fact, for any Lankan, period, who has not visited this “Rock-Fortress”, in our Country, let me just say that you have missed seeing only ONE of Sri Lankas multitude of historical wonders. At the same time, I hasten to add that you have possibly missed the BEST. I can say, that from personal experience, I have not only visited the site, but climbed “our answer to “Ayers Rock” in Australia”, which is many times larger, broader & longer than Sigiriya, and “Uluru”is also well-known as a “sacred-site”to the Aborigines/First Australians, after “Mungo-Man”,(an entirely different story),so let us now stick to our “Lion-Rock”. Yes, folks, I did “climb” Sigiriya”, once, in the company of the most beautiful girl in Ceylon, at the time, whose name was Maureen Hingert, or Neliya, my first “puppy-love”. We climbed this Monolith together, through the huge set of “Lion-paws”which made the entrance, past the area with all the “fresco-paintings”of the half-naked Sinhalese maidens, higher & higher on a steep, narrow, rather dangerous climb (at the time), until we reached the zenith, to marvel at the sight of what must have been King Kasyapa’s “Mansion in the sky”, then walk around it, to the very edge of “the Rock” to gaze in awe, at the surrounding Countryside, at least six shades of verdant “green” all around us. It was good to be alive, good to be in such a beautiful Country, good to be “in love” & good to be on top of Sigiriya Mountain.
I need say no more, but leave it to my good friend & Co-writer for eLanka, Bernard VanCuylenberg to bring to our many thousands of “on-line” readers, a fascinating “history lesson” on “SIGIRIYA”. What this guy does not know, on the subjects he writes about, is not worth knowing. We are proud to have him on our eLanka team. Desmond Kelly.
The Sigiriya Sagas by Bernard VanCuylenburg
PREFACE TO THE SIGIRIYA SAGAS
Scholars and students of history and the academic world in general owe a debt of gratitude to the late great Professor Senerat Paranavitane for his epic tome, “The Story of Sigiriya”. Had he not undertaken this colossal task in a literary sense, the story of Sigiriya and the absorbing detail in which the drama of Sigiriya was enacted would have been lost to posterity. The chronicler who wrote the story of Sigiriya in the Culavamsa has barely scratched the surface. In fact, in the great chronicle, the entire story ends with two chapters ! …